Resources & Research in Equine Therapy
2016 EAAT Literature Review
By Leif Hallberg
When contemplating the foundation for The Clinical Practice of Equine-Assisted Therapy: Including Horses in Human Healthcare (Routledge, 2018), it was clear an approach was needed that would help bridge the gap between scientific research and the personal beliefs, opinions, and practices prevalent in mainstream literature or promoted by membership or training organizations.
Many providers of equine-assisted therapy report inadequate access to peer-reviewed journals (Stroud & Hallberg, 2016), which are the primary source for documenting current research and practice trends. This phenomenon is called the “science to service gap” (National Implementation Science Research Network, 2016). Common across most healthcare disciplines, the results of scientific study are not always accessible to those in clinical practice. When professionals do not have access to current research, healthcare strategies may be provided that are ineffective, outdated, or lack conclusive research results (International Council of Nurses, 2012).
To achieve this goal, a comprehensive review of research articles on equine-assisted therapy published between 1985-2016 was conducted using fourteen databases including PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Psychiatric Online, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, the Social Sciences Citation Index, Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Physical Therapy and Sports Medicine Collection, EBSCO Academic Search, EBSCO SPORTDiscus, EBSCO Educational Research Complete, EBSCO HealthSource, and VetMed.
- Peer-reviewed (refereed) papers
- Primary source
- Written in English
- Published between 1985-2016
- Directly relevant to equine-assisted therapy, but includes papers on the following related topics:
- Robo (or mechanical horse simulator use as it relates to equine-assisted interventions)
- Practice patterns, reviews, and perspectives related to equine-assisted interventions
- Horse care and welfare, ethics, and selection criteria related to equine-assisted interventions
- Horse ethology (including communication, behavior, psychology)
- Safety and accident data related to working with horses
Key Words and Search Terms
- The following key words were used: Equine-assisted therapy, hippotherapy, therapeutic riding, adaptive riding, equine-assisted psychotherapy, equine-facilitated psychotherapy, equine-assisted counseling, equine-assisted learning, and equine-facilitated learning.
- Additional search terms were used in conjunction with the above key words including:
- Addictions or chemical dependency
- At-risk youth
- Cerebral palsy
- Chemical dependency
- Children and adolescents
- Combat PTSD
- Down syndrome
- Eating disorders
- Intellectual disability
- Learning disability
- Muscular dystrophy
- Multiple sclerosis
- Neurological conditions
- Physical abuse
- Psychiatric conditions
- Self-harming behaviors
- Severe mental illness
- Sexual assault or abuse
- Spina bifida
- Spine injury
- Traumatic brain injury
A total of 354 papers were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These articles were coded and sorted into categories by population or condition addressed by an equine intervention, or by the topic of research inquiry.
An asterisk indicates a regulated type of therapy (physical, occupation, speech, or mental health) provided by a licensed healthcare professional was utilized as the treatment intervention. Only live-horse studies were included in this distinction.
Articles without asterisks indicate a non-therapy service like adaptive riding or equine-assisted learning was used, or that the article was not clear as to if therapy was used or if the intervention was provided by a licensed healthcare professional.
Literature or Systematic Reviews
Anestis, M.D., Anestis, J.C., Zawilinski, L.L., Hopkins, T.A., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2014). Equine-related treatments for mental disorders lack empirical support: A systematic review of empirical investigations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 0(0), 1-18.
Angoules, A., Koukoulas, D., Balakatounis, K., Kapari, I., & Matsouki, E. (2015). A review of efficacy of hippotherapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 8(4), 289–297.
Bachi, K. (2012). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy: The gap between practice and knowledge. Society & Animals, 20, 364–380.
Bachi, K. (2013). Equine-facilitated prison-based programs within the context of prison-based animal programs: State of the science review. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 52(1), 46–74.
Bond, M. (2007). Horseback riding as therapy for children with cerebral palsy: Is there evidence of its effectiveness? Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 27(2), 5–23.
Bronson, C., Brewerton, K., Ong, J., Palanca, C., & Sullivan, S. J. (2010). Does hippotherapy improve balance in persons with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 46(3), 347-353.
Cantin, A, & Marshall-Lucette, S. (2011). Examining the literature on the efficacy of equine assisted therapy for people with mental health and behavioural disorders. Mental Health and Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 51–61.
Carlsson, C. (2016). A narrative review of qualitative and quantitative research in equine-assisted social work or therapy – Addressing gaps and contradictory results. Animalia An Anthrozoology Journal, (February 14).
Frewin, K., & Gardiner, B. (2005). New age or old sage? A review of equine assisted psychotherapy. The Australian Journal of Counselling Psychology, 6, 13–17.
Kendall, E., Maujean, A., Pepping, C.A., Downes, M., Lakhani, A., Byrne, J., & Macfarlanea, K. (2015). A systematic review of the efficacy of equine- assisted interventions on psychological outcomes. European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 2537(17), 57–79.
Lee, P. T., Dakin, E., & Mclure, M. (2016). Narrative synthesis of equine-assisted psychotherapy literature: Current knowledge and future research directions. Health and Social Care in the Community, 24(3), 225–246.
Lentini, J. A., & Knox, M. (2009). A Qualitative and quantitative review of equine facilitated psychotherapy (EFP) with children and adolescents. The Open Complementary Medicine Journal, 1, 51–57.
Lentini, J. A., & Knox, M. S. (2015). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy with children and adolescents: An update and literature review. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 10(3), 278–305.
MacKinnon, J.R., Noh, S., Laliberte, D., Allan, D.E., & Lariviere, J. (1995). Therapeutic horseback riding: A review of literature. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 15(1), 1–15.
Selby, A., & Smith-Osborne, A. (2013). A systematic review of effectiveness of complementary and adjunct therapies and interventions involving equines. Health Psychology, 32(4), 418–432.
Smith-Osborne, A., & Selby, A. (2010). Implications of the literature on equine-assisted activities for use as a complementary intervention in social work practice with children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 27, 291–307.
Snider, L, Korner-Bitensky, N., Kammann, C., Warner, S., & Saleh, M. (2007). Horseback riding as therapy for children with cerebral palsy: Is there evidence of its effectiveness? Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 27(2), 5–23.
Sterba, J. A. (2007). Does horseback riding therapy or therapist-directed hippotherapy rehabilitate children with cerebral palsy? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(1), 68–73.
Thompson, J. R., Iacobucci, V., & Varney, R. (2012). Giddyup! or whoa nelly! Making sense of benefit claims on websites of equine programs for children with disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24, 373–390.
Tseng, S.-H., Chen, H.-C., & Tam, K.-W. (2012). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35, 1–11.
Wang, G., Ma, R., Qiao, G., Wada, K., Aizawa, Y., & Satoh, T. (2015). The effect of riding as an alternative treatment for children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Integrative Medicine International, 1(4), 211–222.
Whalen, N.C., & Case-Smith, J. (2012). Therapeutic effects of horseback riding therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 32(3), 229–242.
Zadnikar, M., & Kastrin, A. (2011). Effects of hippotherapy and therapeutic horseback riding on postural control or balance in children with cerebral palsy: A meta-analysis. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 53(8), 684-691.
Alemdaroğlu, E., Yanikoğlu, I., Öken, Ö., Uçan, H., Ersöz, M., Köseoğlu, B. F., & Kapicioğlu, M. I. S. (2016). Horseback riding therapy in addition to conventional rehabilitation program decreases spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: A small sample study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 23, 26–29.
*Angsupaisal, M., Visser, B., Alkema, A., Meinsma-van der Tuin, M., Maathuis, C.G.B., Reinders-Messelink, H., & Hadders-Algra, M. (2015). Therapist-designed adaptive riding in children with cerebral palsy: Results of a feasibility study. Physical Therapy, 95(8), 1151–1162.
Baik, K., Byeun, J.-K., & Baek, J.-K. (2014). The effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone and range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 10(5), 265–270.
*Benda, W., McGibbon, N.H., & Grant, K.L. (2003). Improvements in muscle symmetry in children with cerebral palsy after equine-assisted therapy (hippotherapy). Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 9(6), 817–825.
Bertoti, D. B. (1988). Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on posture in children with cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 68(10), 1505–1512.
Borges, M.B.S., Werneck, M.J.S., Gandolfi, L., & Pratesi, R. (2011). Therapeutic effects of a horse riding simulator in children with cerebral palsy. Arq Neuropsiquiatr, 69(5), 799–804.
*Casady, R. L., & Nichols-Larsen, D. S. (2004). The effect of hippotherapy on ten children with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 16(3), 165–172.
*Chang, H. J., Kwon, J.-Y., Lee, J.-Y., & Kim, Y.-H. (2012). The effects of hippotherapy on the motor function of children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 24(12), 1277–1280.
Cherng, R.-J., Liao, H.-F., Leung, H.W.C., & Hwang, A.-W. (2004). The effectiveness of therapeutic horseback riding in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 21(2), 103–121.
Clayton, H.M., Kaiser, L.J., de Pue, B., Kaiser, L. (2011). Center-of-pressure movements during equine-assisted activities. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(2), 211–216.
Davis, E., Davies, B., Wolfe, R., Raadsveld, R., Heine, B., Thomason, P., et. al., (2009). A randomized controlled trial of the impact of therapeutic horse riding on the quality of life, health, and function of children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 51(2), 111–119.
*Debuse, D., Gibb, C., & Chandler, C. (2009). Effects of hippotherapy on people with cerebral palsy from the users’ perspective: a qualitative study. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 25(3), 174–192.
Dirienzo, L.N., Dirienzo, L.T., & Baceski, D.A. (2007). Heart rate response to therapeutic riding in children with cerebral palsy: An exploratory study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 19(2), 160–165.
Drnach, M., O’Brien, P. a, & Kreger, A. (2010). The effects of a 5-week therapeutic horseback riding program on gross motor function in a child with cerebral palsy: a case study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(9), 1003–1006.
*El-Meniawy, G. H., & Thabet, N. S. (2012). Modulation of back geometry in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy via hippotherapy training. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, 13(1), 63–71.
*Frank, A., Mccloskey, S., & Dole, R. L. (2011). Effect of hippotherapy on perceived self-competence and participation in a child with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 23, 301–308.
Haehl, V., Giuliani, C., & Lewis, C. (1999). The influence of hippotherapy on the kinematics and functional performance of two children with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 11, 89–101.
*Hamill, D., Washington, K., & White, O.R. (2007). The effect of hippotherapy on postural control in sitting for children with cerebral palsy. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 27(4), 23–42.
Herrero, P., Asensio, A., García, E., Marco, A., Oliván, B., Ibarz, A., et. al., (2010). Study of the therapeutic effects of an advanced hippotherapy simulator in children with cerebral palsy: A randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 11, 71.
Herrero, P., Gómez-Trullén, E. M., Asensio, A., García, E., Casas, R., Monserrat, E., & Pandyan, A. (2012). Study of the therapeutic effects of a hippotherapy simulator in children with cerebral palsy: A stratified single-blind randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(12), 1105–1113.
*Honkavaara, M., Rintala, P. (2010). The influence of short term, intensive hippotherapy on gait in children with cerebral palsy. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 3(2), 29–36.
Ionatamishvili, N.I., Tsverava, D.M., Loriya, M.Sh., Sheshaberidze, E.G., & Rukhadze, M.M. (2004). Riding therapy as a method of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Human Physiology, 30(5), 561– 565.
*Kang, H., Jung, J., & Yu, J. (2012). Effects of hippotherapy on the sitting balance of children with cerebral palsy: A randomized control trial. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 24(9), 833–836.
*Krejčí, E., Janura, M., & Svoboda, Z. (2015). The benefit of hippotherapy for improvement of attention and memory in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study. Acta Gymnica, 45(1), 27–32.
Kuczynski, M., & Slonka, K. (1999). Influence of artificial saddle riding on postural stability in children with cerebral palsy. Gait and Posture, 10, 154–160.
*Kulkarni-Lambore, S., McGuigan, A., Narula, N., & Sepelak, K. (2001). Kinematic gait analysis of an individual with cerebral palsy before and after hippotherapy. Physical Therapy, 81(5), A40–A41.
*Kwon, J.-Y., Chang, H.J., Lee, J.Y., Ha, Y., Lee, P.K., & Kim, Y.H. (2011). Effects of hippotherapy on gait parameters in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(5), 774–779.
*Kwon, J.-Y., Chang, H. J., Yi, S.-H., Lee, J. Y., Shin, H.-Y., & Kim, Y.-H. (2015). Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(1), 15–21.
Lee, C.-W., Kim, S. G., & Na, S. S. (2014). The effects of hippotherapy and a horse riding simulator on the balance of children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(3), 423–425.
Mackinnon, J.R., Noh, S., Laviviere, J., Macphail, A., Allan, D.E., & Laliberte, D. (1995). A study of therapeutic effects of horseback riding for children with cerebral palsy. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 15(1), 17–34.
Mackow, A., et al. (2014). Influence of neurophysicological hippotherapy on the transference of the centre of gravity among children with cerebral palsy. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja, 16(6), 581–593.
*Manikowska, F., Jóźwiak, M., Idzior, M., Chen, P.-J. B., & Tarnowski, D. (2013). The effect of a hippotherapy session on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in children with cerebral palsy – pilot study. Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja, 15(3), 253–7.
*McGee, M. C., & Reese, N. B. (2009). Immediate effects of a hippotherapy session on gait parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy: The Official Publication of the Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association, 21(2), 212–218.
*McGibbon, N.H., Andrade, C.K., Widener, G., & Cintas, H. L. (1998). Effect of an equine-movement therapy program on gait, energy expenditure, and motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 40, 754–762.
*McGibbon, N.H., Benda, W., Duncan, B.R., & Silkwood-Sherer, D. (2009). Immediate and long-term effects of hippotherapy on symmetry of adductor muscle activity and functional ability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90(6), 966–974.
*Park, E.S., Rha, D.-W., Shin, J. S., Kim, S., & Jung, S. (2014). Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy. Yonsei Medical Journal, 55(6), 1736–1742.
Quint, C., & Toomey, M. (1998). Powered saddle and pelvic mobility: An investigation into the effects on pelvic mobility of children with cerebral palsy of a powered saddle which imitates the movements of a walking horse. Physiotherapy, 84(8), 376–384.
Rosenbaum, P. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of the impact of therapeutic horse riding on the quality of life, health, and function of children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 51, 89–91.
*Shurtleff, T.L., Standeven, J.W., & Engsberg, J.R. (2009). Changes in dynamic trunk/head stability and functional reach after hippotherapy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90(7), 1185–1195.
*Shurtleff, T.L., & Engsberg, J.R. (2010). Changes in trunk and head stability in children with cerebral palsy after hippotherapy: a pilot study. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 30(2), 150–63.
*Shurtleff, T., & Engsber, J.R. (2012). Long-term effects of hippotheray on one child with cerebral palsy: a research case study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(8), 359–366.
Sterba, J.A., Rogers, B.T., France, A P., & Vokes, D.A. (2002). Horseback riding in children with cerebral palsy: effect on gross motor function. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 44(5), 301–308.
Temcharoensuk, P., Lekskulchai, R., Akamanon, C., Ritruechai, P., & Sutcharitpongsa, S. (2015). Effect of horseback riding versus a dynamic and static horse riding simulator on sitting ability of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(1), 273–277.
*Yokoyama, M., Kaname, T., Tabata, M., Hotta, K., Shimizu, R., Kamiya, K., et. al., (2013). Hippotherapy to improve hypertonia caused by an autonomic imbalance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Kitasato Medical Journal, 43, 67–73.
*Zadnikar, M., & Rugelj, D. (2011). Postural stability after hippotherapy in an adolescent with cerebral palsy. Journal of Novel Physiotherapies, 1(1). 1-5.
Zurek, G., Dudek, K., Pirogowicz, I., Dziuba, A., & Pokorski, M. (2008). Influence of mechanical hippotherapy on skin temperature responses in lower limbs in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 59(6), 819–824.
*Ajzenman, H. (2013). Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(6), 653–663.
Anderson, S. & Meints, K. (2016). The effects of equine-assisted activities on the social functioning in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 46(10), 3344–3352.
Bass, M.M., Duchowny, C.A., & Llabre, M.M. (2009). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1261–1267.
Borgi, M., Loliva, D., Cerino, S., Chiarotti, F., Venerosi, A., Bramini, M., et. al., (2016). Effectiveness of a standardized equine-assisted therapy program for children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(1), 1–9.
Chen, C.-C., Crews, D., Mundt, S., & Ringenbach, S.D.R. (2015). Effects of equine interaction on EEG asymmetry in children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 61(1), 56–59.
Dingman, A. (2008). Hoof prints: Equine therapy for autistic children. Encounter, 21(4), 11–13.
Erdman, P., Miller, D., & Jacobson, S. (2015). The impact of an equine facilitated learning program on youth with autism spectrum disorder. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 3(2), 21–36.
Gabriels, R.L., Agnew, J.A., Holt, K.D., Shoffner, A., Zhaoxing, P., et. al., (2012). Pilot study measuring the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on school-age children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 578–588.
Gabriels, R. L., Pan, Z., Dechant, B., Agnew, J. A., Brim, N., & Mesibov, G. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of therapeutic horseback riding in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(7), 541–549.
García-Gómez, A., López-Risco, M., Rubio-Jiménez, J., Barona-Guerrero, E., & García-Peña, I. (2014). Effects of a program of adapted therapeutic horse-riding in a group of autism spectrum disorder children. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 12(1), 107–128.
Ghorban, H., Sedigheh, D.R., Marzieh, G., & Yaghoob, G. (2013). Effectiveness of therapeutic horseback riding on social skills of children with autism spectrum disorder in Shiraz, Iran. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(3), 79-84.
Hameury, L., Delavous, P., Teste, B., Leroy, C., Gaboriau, J.C., & Berthier, A. (2010). Equine-assisted therapy and autism. Annales Medico-Psychologiques, 168(9), 655–659.
Hawkins, B.L., Ryan, J.B., Cory, L.A., & Donaldson, M.C. (2014). Effects of equine-assisted therapy on gross motor skills of two children with autism spectrum disorder. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 48(2), 135–150.
Holm, M. B., Baird, J. M., Kim, Y. J., Rajora, K. B., D’Silva, D., Podolinsky, L., et. al., (2014). Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: An ABA′ multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(4), 937–947.
Jenkins, S.R., & Digennaro Reed, F.D. (2013). An experimental analysis of the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on the behavior of children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(6), 721–740.
Kern, J.K., Fletcher, C.L., Garver, C.R., Mehta, J.A., Grannemann, B.D., Knox, K.R., et. al., (2011). Prospective trial of equine-assisted activities in autism spectrum disorder. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 17(3), 14–20.
Lanning, B., Baier, M.E.M., Ivey-Hatz, J., Krenek, N., & Tubbs, J.D. (2014). Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1897–1907.
*Memishevikj, H, & Hodzhikj, S. (2010). The effects of equine-assisted therapy in improving the psycho-social functioning of children with autism. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 11, 57–67.
Nelson, K., Axtell, J., & Derby, K. (2011). A preliminary analysis of therapeutic horseback riding. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 1(4), 644–656.
Sánchez, C.T., Castro, F.V., Herrera, S.S., & Juánez, J.C. (2014). Hormonal changes analysis by effects of horses assisted therapy in the autistic population. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 132, 87–91.
Steiner, H., & Kertesz, Z. (2015). Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism. Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 102(3), 324–335.
*Taylor, R. R., Kielhofner, G., Smith, C., Butler, S., Cahill, S. M., Ciukaj, M. D., & Gehman, M. (2009). Volitional change in children with autism: A single-case design study of the impact of hippotherapy on motivation. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 25, 192–200.
Ward, S. C., Whalon, K., Rusnak, K., Wendell, K., & Paschall, N. (2013). The association between therapeutic horseback riding and the social communication and sensory reactions of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2190–2198.
Wuang, Y.-P., Wang, C.-C., Huang, M.-H., & Su, C.-Y. (2010). The effectiveness of simulated developmental horse-riding program in children with autism. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27(2), 113–126.
*Bachi, K., Terkel, J., & Teichman, M. (2011). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy for at-risk adolescents: The influence on self-image, self-control and trust. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 298–312.
*Boshoff, C., Grobler, H., & Nienaber, A. (2015). The evaluation of an equine-assisted therapy programme with a group of boys in a youth care facility. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 25(1), 86–90.
*Bowers, M.J. & MacDonald, P.M. (2001). The effectiveness of equine-facilitated psychotherapy with at-risk adolescents: A pilot study. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 15, 62-76.
Burgon, H.L. (2011). “Queen of the world”: Experiences of “at-risk” young people participating in equine-assisted learning/therapy. Journal of Social Work Practice, 25(2), 165–183.
Burgon, H.L. (2014). Horses, mindfulness and the natural environment: Observations from a qualitative study with at-risk young people participating in therapeutic horsemanship. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 17(2), 51–67.
*Drinkhouse, M., Birmingham, S., Fillman, R., & Jedlicka, H. (2012). Correlation of human and horse heart rates during equine-assisted therapy sessions with at-risk youths: A pilot study. Journal of Student Research, 1(3), 22–25.
Frederick, K.E., Ivey Hatz, J., & Lanning, B. (2015). Not just horsing around: The impact of equine-assisted learning on levels of hope and depression in at-risk adolescents. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(7), 809–817.
Gibbons, J. L., Cunningham, C. A., Paiz, L., Poelker, K. E., & Chajón, A. (2016). “Now, he will be the leader of the house”: An equine intervention with at-risk Guatemalan youth. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 10(10), 1–15.
Holmes, C.M.P., Goodwin, D., Redhead, E.S., & Goymour, K.L. (2012). The benefits of equine-assisted activities: An exploratory study. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 29(2), 111–122.
Kaiser, L., Smith, K. A., Heleski, C. R., & Spence, L. J. (2006). Exploring the bond effects of a therapeutic riding program on at-risk and special education children. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 228(2), 46–52.
*Kendall, E., & Maujean, A. (2015). Horse play: A brief psychological intervention for disengaged youths. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 10(1), 46–61.
*Maujean, A., Kendall, E., Lillan, R., Sharp, T., & Pringle, G. (2013). Connecting for health: Playing with horses as a therapeutic tool. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(4), 515–522.
Saggers, B. & Strachan, J. (2016). Horsing around: Using equine facilitated learning to support the development of social-emotional competence of students at risk of school failure. Child & Youth Services, 37(3), 231–252.
*Trotter, K. S., Chandler, C. K., Goodwin-Bond, D., & Casey. (2008). A comparative study of the efficacy of group equine assisted counseling with at-risk children and adolescents. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 3, 254–284.
Waite, C., & Bourke, L. (2013). “It’s different with a horse”: Horses as a tool for engagement in a horse therapy program for marginalised young people. Youth Studies Australia, 32(4).
*Wilkie, K.D., Germain, S., & Theule, J. (2016). Evaluating the efficacy of equine therapy among at-risk youth: A meta-analysis. Anthrozoos, 29, 377–393.
Non-Combat PTSD, Trauma, Abuse
*Earles, J., Vernon, L., & Yetz, J. (2015). Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28, 149–152.
*Froeschle, J. (2009). Empowering abused women through equine assisted career therapy. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 4(2), 180–190.
Guerino, M.R., Briel, A.F., & Araújo, M.G.R. (2015). Hippotherapy as a treatment for socialization after sexual abuse and emotional stress. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(3), 959–962.
*Johansen, S.G.; Arfwedson Wang, C.E., & Binder, P.-E. (2016). Facilitating change in a client’s dysfunctional behavioural pattern with horse-aided psychotherapy. A case study. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 16(3), 222–231.
*Kemp, K., Signal, T., Botros, H., Taylor, N., & Prentice, K. (2014). Equine facilitated therapy with children and adolescents who have been sexually abused: A program evaluation study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 558–566.
*McCullough, L., Risley-Curtiss, C., & Rorke, J. (2015). Equine facilitated psychotherapy: A pilot study of effect on posttraumatic stress symptoms in maltreated youth. Journal of Infant, Child & Adolescent Psychotherapy, 14(2), 158–173.
*Meinersmann, K.M., Bradberry, J., & Roberts, F.B. (2008). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy with adult female survivors of abuse. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46(12), 36–42.
*Porter-Wenzlaff, L. (2007). Finding their voice: Developing emotional, cognitive, and behavioral congruence in female abuse survivors through equine-facilitated psychotherapy. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 3(5), 529–534.
*Schroeder, K., & Stroud, D. (2015). Equine-facilitated group work for women survivors of interpersonal violence. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 3922, 1–22.
*Schultz, P. N., Remick-Barlow, G. A., & Bobbins, L. (2007). Equine-assisted psychotherapy: A mental health promotion/intervention modality for children who have experienced infra-family violence. Health and Social Care in the Community, 15(3), 265–271.
*Signal, T., Taylor, N., Botros, H., Prentice, K., & Lazarus, K. (2013). Whispering to horses: childhood sexual abuse, depression and the efficacy of equine facilitated therapy. SAANZ Journal, 5(1), 24–32.
*Whittlesey-Jerome, W.K. (2014). Adding equine-assisted psychotherapy to conventional treatments: A pilot study exploring ways to increase adult female self-efficacy among victims of interpersonal violence. The Practitioner Scholar: Journal of Counseling and Professional Psychology, 3, 82–101.
*Yorke, J., Adams, C., & Coady, N. (2008). Therapeutic value of equine-human bonding in recovery from trauma. Anthrozoös, 21(1), 17–30.
*Yorke, J., Nugent, W., Strand, E., Bolen, R., New, J., & Davis, C. (2013). Equine-assisted therapy and its impact on cortisol levels of children and horses: a pilot study and meta-analysis. Early Child Development and Care, 183(7), 874–894.
Cho, S.-H., Kim, J.-W., Kim, S.-R., & Cho, B.-J. (2015). Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(7), 2271–3.
Dabelko-Schoeny, H., Phillips, G., Darrough, E., DeAnna, S., Jarden, M., Johnson, D., & Lorch, G. (2014). Equine-assisted intervention for people with dementia. Anthrozoos, 27(1), 141–155.
de Araujo, T.B., Silva, N.A., Costa, J.N., Pereira, M.M., & Safons, M.P. (2011). Effect of equine-assisted therapy on the postural balance of the elderly. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 15(5), 414–419.
*de Araújo, T.B., de Oliveira, R.J., Martins, W.R., de Moura Pereira, M., Copetti, F., & Safons, M. P. (2013). Effects of hippotherapy on mobility, strength and balance in elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56(3), 478–481.
Homnick, D. N., Henning, K. M., Swain, C. V, & Homnick, T. D. (2013). Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults with balance deficits. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(7), 622–626.
Homnick, T. D., Henning, K. M., Swain, C. V, & Homnick, D. N. (2015). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study. Journal of Applied Gerontology: The Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society, 34(1), 118–26.
*Kim, S. G., & Lee, C.-W. (2014). The effects of hippotherapy on elderly persons’ static balance and gait. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 25–27.
Kim, S. G., & Lee, J. H. (2015). The effects of horse riding simulation exercise on muscle activation and limits of stability in the elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 60(1), 62–65.
Kim, S., Yuk, G.-C., & Gak, H. (2013). Effects of the horse riding simulator and ball exercises on balance of the elderly. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25(11), 1425–1428.
*Seon, G.K., & Lee, C.W. (2014). The effects of hippotherapy on elderly persons’ static balance and gait. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 25–27.
*Wehofer, L., Goodson, N., & Shurtleff, T. L. (2013). Equine assisted activities and therapies: A case study of an older adult. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 31(1), 71–87.
Psychiatric Conditions/Mental Illness
Ansorge, J., & Sudres, J.-L. (2011). Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry. Soins. Psychiatrie, 277, 40–44.
Bizub, A., Joy, A., & Davidson, L. (2003). “It’s like being in another world”: Demonstrating the benefits of therapeutic horseback riding for individuals with psychiatric disability. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 26(4), 377–384.
*Cerino, S., Cirulli, F., Chiarotti, F., & Seripa, S. (2011). Non conventional psychiatric rehabilitation in schizophrenia using therapeutic riding: the FISE multicentre Pindar project. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore Di Sanità, 47(4), 409–414.
*Chardonnens, E. (2009). The use of animals as co-therapists on a farm: The child-horse bond in person-centred equine-assisted psychotherapy. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 8(4), 319–332.
Corring, D., Lundberg, E., & Rudnick, A. (2013). Therapeutic horseback riding for ACT patients with schizophrenia. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(1), 121–126. h
Ewing, C.A., MacDonald, P.M., Taylor, M., & Bowers, M.J. (2007). Equine-facilitated learning for youths with severe emotional disorders: A quantitative and qualitative study. Child Youth Care Forum, 36, 59–72.
*Johansen, S.G., & Malt, U.F. (2010). Development of a new therapeutic equine facilitated psychotherapy program for patients with mood and other psychiatric disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122, S44–S45.
*Nurenberg, J.R., Schleifer, S., Carson, S., Tsang, J., Montalvo, C., & Chou, K. (2013). Equine-facilitated group psychotherapy with chronic psychiatric inpatients: Two controlled studies. European Psychiatry, 28, 1.
*Nurenberg, J. R., Schleifer, S. J., Shaffer, T. M., Yellin, M., Desai, P. J., Amin, R., et. al., (2015). Animal-assisted therapy with chronic psychiatric inpatients: Equine-assisted psychotherapy and aggressive behavior. Psychiatric Services, 66(1), 80–86.
Seredova, M., Maskova, A., Mrstinova, M., & Volicer, L. (2016). Effects of hippotherapy on well-being of patients with schizophrenia. Archives of Neuroscience, 3(4), 1–5.
Baek, I.-H., & Kim, B. J. (2014). The effects of horse riding simulation training on stroke patients’ balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness changes. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(8), 1293–6.
*Beinotti, F., Correia, N., Christofoletti, G., & Borges, G. (2010). Use of hippotherapy in gait training for hemiparetic post-stroke. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 68(6), 908–913.
Beinotti, F., Christofoletti, G., Correia, N., & Borges, G. (2013). Effects of horseback riding therapy on quality of life in patients post stroke. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation Journal, 20(3), 226–232.
Bunketorp Käll, L., Lundgren-Nilsson, Å., Blomstrand, C., Pekna, M., Pekny, M., & Nilsson, M. (2012). The effects of a rhythm and music-based therapy program and therapeutic riding in late recovery phase following stroke: a study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial. BMC Neurology, 12, 141–153.
Kim, H., Her, J. G., & Ko, J. (2014). Effect of horseback riding simulation machine training on trunk balance and gait of chronic stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 29–32.
Kim, Y.-N., & Lee, D.-K. (2015). Effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living in stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(3), 607–9.
Park, J., Lee, S., Lee, J., & Lee, D. (2013). The effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on postural balance of chronic stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25(9), 1169–72.
*Sung, Y. H., Kim, C. J., Yu, B. K., & Kim, K. M. (2013). A hippotherapy simulator is effective to shift weight bearing toward the affected side during gait in patients with stroke. NeuroRehabilitation, 33(3), 407–412.
Asselin, G., Ward, C., Penning, J.H., Ramanujam, S., & Neri, R. (2012). Therapeutic horse back riding of a spinal cord injured veteran: A case study. Rehabilitation Nursing, 37(6), 270–276.
*Burton, L. E., & Burge, M. R. (2015). Equine assisted therapy reduces symptoms in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 63(1), 165.
Duncan, C. R., Critchley, S., & Marland, J. (2014). Can praxis: A model of equine assisted learning (EAL) for PTSD. Canadian Military Journal, 14(2), 64–69.
*Ferruolo, D. M. (2015). Psychosocial equine program for veterans. Social Work, 61(1), 53–60.
Lanning, B., & Krenek, N. (2013). Guest Editorial: Examining effects of equine-assisted activities to help combat veterans improve quality of life. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 50(8), vii–xiii.
*Mykhaylov, B.V, Serdiuk, A.I., Vodka, M.E., Aliieva, T.A., & Vashkite, I.D. (2016). The use of equine assisted psychotherapy among the demobilized members of the antiterrorist operation with PTSD, located on rehabilitation in sanatorium conditions. Психіатрія, Неврологія Та Медична Психологія, 1(5), 112–117.
*Nevins, R., Finch, S., Hickling, E.J., & Barnett, S.D. (2013). The Saratoga WarHorse project: a case study of the treatment of psychological distress in a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 27(4), 22—25.
Newton-Cromwell, S.A., McSpadden, B.D., & Johnson, R. (2015). Incorporating experiential learning for equine-assisted activities and therapies with an in-house equine therapy program for veterans. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35(5), 458.
*Gencheva, N., Ivanova, I., & Stefanova, D. (2015). Evaluation of hippotherapy in the course of multiple sclerosis treatment. Activities in Physical Education and Sport, 5(2), 183–187.
*Hammer, A., Nilsagård, Y., Forsberg, A., Pepa, H., Skargren, E., & Oberg, B. (2005). Evaluation of therapeutic riding (Sweden)/hippotherapy (United States). A single-subject experimental design study replicated in eleven patients with multiple sclerosis. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 21(1), 51–77.
*Lindroth, J.L., Sullivan, J.L., & Silkwood-Sherer, D. (2015). Does hippotherapy effect use of sensory information for balance in people with multiple sclerosis? Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 31(8), 575–581.
*Menezes, K. M., Copetti, F., Wiest, M. J., Trevisan, C. M., & Silveira, A. F. (2013). Effect of hippotherapy on the postural stability of patients with multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study. Fisioterapia E Pesquisa, 1000(4), 43–49.
Munoz-Lasa, S., Ferriero, G., Valero, R., Gomez-Muniz, F., Rabini, A., & Varela, E. (2011). Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance and gait of people with multiple sclerosis. Giornale Italiano Di Medicina Del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia, 33(4), 462–467.
*Silkwood-Sherer, D., & Warmbier, H. (2007). Effects of hippotherapy on postural stability, in persons with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 31(2), 77–84.
Adams, C., Arratoon, C., Boucher, J., Cartier, G., Chalmers, D., Dell, C.A., et. al., (2015). The helping horse: How equine assisted learning contributes to the wellbeing of First Nations youth in treatment for volatile substance misuse. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 1(1), 52–75.
Cody, P., Steiker, L. H., & Szymandera, M. L. (2011). Equine therapy: Substance abusers’ “healing through horses”. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions.
Dell, C. A., Chalmers, D., Dell, D., Sauve, E., & MacKinnon, T. (2008). Horse as healer: An examination of equine assisted learning in the healing of First Nations youth from solvent abuse. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 81–106.
Dell, C. A., Chalmers, D., Bresette, N., Swain, S., Rankin, D., & Hopkins, C. (2011). A healing space: The experiences of First Nations and Inuit youth with equine-assisted learning (EAL).Child and Youth Care Forum, 40(4), 319–336.
*Kern-Godal, A., Arnevik, E.A., Walderhaug, E., & Ravndal, E. (2015). Substance use disorder treatment retention and completion: a prospective study of EAT for young adults. Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, 10(21), 3–12.
*Kern-Godal, A., Brenna, I.H., Kogstad, N., Arnevik, E.A., & Ravndal, E. (2016). Contribution of the patient horse relationship to substance use disorder treatment: Patients’ experiences. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 11, 1–12.
*Kern-Godal, A., Brenna, I.H., Arnevik, E.A., & Ravndal, E. (2016). More than just a break from treatment: How substance use disorder patients experience the stable environment in horse-assisted therapy. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 10, 99–108.
Cuypers, K., De Ridder, K., & Strandheim, A. (2011). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on 5 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(10), 901–908.
Hyun, G. J., Jung, T.-W., Park, J. H., Kang, K. D., Kim, S. M., Son, Y. D., et. al., (2016). Changes in gait balance and brain connectivity in response to equine-assisted activity and training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22(4), 286–293.
Jang, B., Song, J., Kim, J., Kim, S., Lee, J., Shin, H.-Y., Kwon, J.-Y., Kim, Y.-H., & Joung, Y.-S. (2015). Equine‐assisted activities and therapy for treating children with attention‐ deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(9), 546–553.
Oh, Y., Seo, H., Jang, B., Song, J., Lee, J., Jeong, B., Kim, Y., Kwon, J., & Joung, Y. (2015). Therapeutic effect of 12 weeks equine assisted activities and therapies (EAA/T) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(1), 171–172.
Yoo, Jae Hyun, et. al. (2016). The effects of equine-assisted activities and therapy on resting-state brain function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot study. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: The Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(4), 357.
*Christian, E. (2005). All creatures great and small: Utilizing equine-assisted therapy to treat eating disorders. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 24(1), 65–67.
Dezutti, J. E. (2013). Eating disorders and equine therapy: A nurse’s perspective on connecting through the recovery process. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 51(9), 24–31.
*Lac, V., Marble, E., & Boie, I. (2013). Equine-assisted psychotherapy as a creative relational approach to treating clients with eating disorders. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 8(4), 483–498.
*Lac, V. (2016). Amy’s Story: An existential-integrative equine-facilitated psychotherapy approach to anorexia nervosa. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1–12.
*Sharpe, H. (2014). Equine-facilitated counselling and women with eating disorders: Articulating bodily. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 48(2), 127–152.
*Cabiddu, R., Borghi-Silva, A., Trimer, R., Trimer, V., Ricci, P. A., Italiano Monteiro, C., et. al., (2016). Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders. Physiology and Behavior, 159, 88–94.
*Encheff, J., Armstrong, C. Masterson, M., Fox, C., & Gribble, P. (2012). Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(3), 242–250.
*Nervick, D., & Parent-Nichols, J. (2012). Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments”. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(3), 251.
*Sunwoo, H., Chang, W. H., Kwon, J.-Y., Kim, T.-W., Lee, J.-Y., & Kim, Y.-H. (2012). Hippotherapy in adult patients with chronic brain disorders: a pilot study. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 36(6), 756–61.
Cushing, J. L., & Williams, J. D. (1995). The wild mustang program: A case study in facilitated inmate therapy. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 22(3/4), 95–112.
Deaton, C. (2005). Humanizing prisons with animals: A closer look at “cell dogs” and horse programs in correctional institutions. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(1), 46–62.
Hemingway, A., Meek, R., & Hill, C. E. (2015). An exploration of an equine-facilitated learning intervention with young offenders. Society & Animals, 23(6), 544–568.
Alfonso, S. V., Alfonso, L. A., Llabre, M. M., & Isabel Fernandez, M. (2015). Project stride: An equine-assisted intervention to reduce symptoms of social anxiety in young women. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 11(6), 461–467.
Scheidhacker, M., Friedrich, D., & Bender, W. (2002). About the treatment of anxiety disorders by psychotherapeutic riding: Long-term observations and results of an experimental clinical study. Krankenhauspsychiatrie, 13(4), 145–152.
*Wilson, K., Buultjens, M., Monfries, M., & Karimi, L. (2015). Equine-assisted psychotherapy for adolescents experiencing depression and/or anxiety: A therapist’s perspective. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1–18.
*Bevilacqua Junior, D.E., Ribeiro, M.F., Accioly, M.F., Ferreira, A.A., Antunes Teixeira, V.D.P., & Espindula, A.P. (2015). Heart rate variability in practitioners of hippotherapy with down syndrome. Physiotherapy, 101, e364.
*Champagne, D., & Dugas, C. (2010). Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with down syndrome: Case reports. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 26(8), 564–571.
*Ribeiro, M.F., Espindula, A.P., Ferreira, A.A., Ferraz, M.L.F., Souza, L.A.P.S., Diniz, L.H., & Teixeira, V.D.P.A. (2015). Electromyographic evaluation of lower limbs in individuals with down syndrome in hippotherapy. Physiotherapy, 101(2), e1279–e1280.
Borioni, N., Marinaro, P., Celestini, S., Del Sole, F., Magro, R., Zoppi, D., et. al., (2012). Effect of equestrian therapy and onotherapy in physical and psycho-social performances of adults with intellectual disability: a preliminary study of evaluation tools based on the ICF classification. Disability and Rehabilitation, 34(4), 279–287.
*Giagazoglou, P., Arabatzi, F., Dipla, K., Liga, M., & Kellis, E. (2012). Effect of a hippotherapy intervention program on static balance and strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 2265–2270.
*Giagazoglou, P., Arabatzi, F., Kellis, E., Liga, M., Karra, C., & Amiridis, I. (2013). Muscle reaction function of individuals with intellectual disabilities may be improved through therapeutic use of a horse. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(9), 2442–2448.
Håkanson, M., Möller, M., Lindström, I., & Mattsson, B. (2009). The horse as the healer: A study of riding in patients with back pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 13(1), 43–52.
Oh, H.-W., Lee, M.-G., Jang, J.-Y., Jin, J.-J., Cha, J.-Y., Jin, Y.-Y., & Jee, Y.-S. (2014). Time-effects of horse simulator exercise on psychophysiological responses in men with chronic low back pain. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 22(2), 153–163.
Yoo, J.-H., Kim, S.-E., Lee, M.-G., Jin, J.-J., Hong, J., Choi, Y.-T., Kim, M.-H., & Jee, Y.-S. (2014). The effect of horse simulator riding on visual analogue scale, body composition and trunk strength in the patients with chronic low back pain. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 68(8), 941–949.
Cerulli, C., Minganti, C., De Santis, C., Tranchita, E., Quaranta, F., & Parisi, A. (2014). Therapeutic horseback riding in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(8), 623–629.
Haylock, P. J., & Cantril, C. A. (2006). Healing with horses: Fostering recovery from cancer with horses as therapists. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 2(3), 264–268.
Spinal Cord Injury
*Lechner, H. E., Feldhaus, S., Gudmundsen, L., Hegemann, D., Michel, D., Zäch, G. a, & Knecht, H. (2003). The short-term effect of hippotherapy on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord: The Official Journal of the International Medical Society of Paraplegia, 41(9), 502–505.
*Lechner, H. E., Kakebeeke, T. H., Hegemann, D., & Baumberger, M. (2007). The effect of hippotherapy on spasticity and on mental well-being of persons with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(10), 1241–1248.
Suicide & Self-Harm
*Carlsson, C., Nilsson Ranta, D., & Traeen, B. (2015). Mentalizing and emotional labor facilitate equine-assisted social work with self-harming adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 32(4), 329–339.
*Carlsson, C. (2016). Triads in equine-assisted social work enhance therapeutic relationships with self-harming adolescents. Clinical Social Work Journal.
*Glazer, H.R., Clark, M.D., & Stein, D.S. (2004). The impact of hippotherapy on grieving children. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 6(3), 171–175.
Symington, A. (2012). Grief and horses: Putting the pieces together. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 7, 165–174.
Misc. Clinical Conditions
Aldridge, R., Schweighart, F., Easley, M., & Wagoner, B. (2001). The effects of hippotherapy on motor performance and function in an individual with bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Journal of Physical Therapy, 2, 54–63.
Bîlbă, A.N. (2015). Equine therapy – Applications in the recovery of disabled children. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 18(4), 46–53.
Bongers, B.C. & Takken, T. (2012). Physiological demands of therapeutic horseback riding in children with moderate to severe motor impairments: An exploratory study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 24(3), 252–257.
Burgon, H. (2003). Case studies of adults receiving horse-riding therapy. Anthrozoös, 16(3), 263–274.
Cawley, R., Cawley, D., & Retter, K. (1994). Therapeutic horseback riding and self-concept in adolescents with special needs. Anthrozoos, 7(2), 129–134.
Del Rosario-Montejo, O., Molina-Rueda, F., Muñoz-Lasa, S., & Alguacil-Diego, I. M. (2015). Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment. Neurología, 30(7), 425–32.
Elliott, Steven, Funderburk, Janet A., & Holland, J. M. (2008). The impact of the “Stirrup Some Fun” therapeutic horseback riding program: a qualitative investigation. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 7(2), 19-28.
Exner, G., Engelmann, A., Lange, K., & Wenck, B. (1994). Basic principles and effects of hippotherapy within the comprehensive treatment of paraplegic patients. Rehabilitation (Stuttg), 33(1), 39–43.
Gilliland, K.J., & Knight, A.C. (2012). Friedreich’s Ataxia and gait changes through participation in therapeutic horseback riding. Clinical Kinesiology, 66(1), 1–6.
Gottwald, A., & Biewald, N. (1981). New aspects in the treatment of Scheuermann’s disease with hippotherapy. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete, 119(4): 351–355.
Heine, B. (1997). Hippotherapy: A multi-system approach to the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Australia Journal of Physiotherapy, 43(2), 145–149.
Hession, C.E., Eastwood, B., Watterson, D., Lehane, C.M., Oxley, N., & Murphy, B. (2014). Therapeutic horse riding improves cognition, mood arousal, and ambulation in children with dyspraxia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(1), 19–23.
Homem, R., & Oliveira, R. (2015). Influence of hippotherapy on the sleep of patients with Parkinson’s disease at advanced stage. Sleep Medicine, 16, S181.
Ihara, M., Ihara, M., & Doumura, M. (2012). Effect of therapeutic riding on functional scoliosis as observed by roentgenography. Pediatrics International, 54(1), 160–162.
Keino, H., Funahashi, A., Keino, H., Miwa, C., Hosokawa, M., Hayashi, Y., & Kawakita, K. (2009). Psycho-educational horseback riding to facilitate communication ability of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Equine Science / Japanese Society of Equine Science, 20(4), 79–88.
Land, G., Errington-Povalac, E., & Paul, S. (2001). The effects of therapeutic riding on sitting posture in individuals with disabilities. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 14(1), 1–12.
Lee, C.-W., Kim, S.-G., & An, B.-W. (2015). The effects of horseback riding on body mass index and gait in obese women. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(4), 1169–1171.
Lehrman, J., & Ross, D.B. (2001). Therapeutic riding for a student with multiple disabilities and visual impairment: A case study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 95(2), 108–109. Retrieved from
Lemke, D., Rothwell, E., Newcomb, T.M., & Swoboda, K.J. (2014). Perceptions of equine-assisted activities and therapies by parents and children with spinal muscular atrophy. Pediatric Physical Therapy: The Official Publication of the Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association, 26(2), 237–44.
Millhouse-Flourie, T. J. (2004). Physical, occupational, respiratory, speech, equine and pet therapies for mitochondrial disease. Mitochondrion, 4(5–6), 549–558.
Mosulishvili, T., & Loria, M. (2013). The effectiveness of ridetherapy in children with benign joint hypermobility syndrome during articulatory changes in the knee joint. Georgian Medical News, 2(215), 76–79.
Murphy, D., Kahn-D’Angelo, L., & Gleason, J. (2008). The effect of hippotherapy on functional outcomes for children with disabilities: a pilot study. Pediatric Physical Therapy: The Official Publication of the Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association, 20(3), 264–270.
Rigby, B.R., Papadakis, Z., Bane, A.A., Park, J.K., & Grandjean, P.W. (2015). Cardiorespiratory and biomechanical responses to simulated recreational horseback riding in healthy children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(1), 63–70.
Rothhaupt, D., Ziegler, H., & Laser, T. (1997). Orthopedic hippotherapy–new methods in treatment of segmental instabilities of the lumbar spine. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 147(22), 504–508.
Schneider, M.S., & Harley, L.P. (2016). The impact of therapeutic riding for people with disabilities on variables related to mental health. Anthrozoos, 29(1), 59–72.
Silkwood-Sherer, D.J., Killian, C.B., Long, T. M., & Martin, K.S. (2012). Hippotherapy–an intervention to habilitate balance deficits in children with movement disorders: a clinical trial. Physical Therapy, 92(5), 707–717.
Turner, J.J. (2005). Effects of equine facilitated psychotherapy on client discharge status. Scientific and Educational Journal of Therapeutic, 11, 1–9.
Ungermann, C. M., & Gras, L. Z. (2011). Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation to improve balance and gait in a aubject with orthopedic pathologies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(12), 1191–1195.
Wanneberg, P. (2014). Disability, riding, and identity: A qualitative study on the influence of riding on the identity construction of people with disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 61(1), 67–79.
Winchester, P., Kendall, K., Peters, H., Sears, N., & Winkley, T. (2002). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on gross motor function and gait speed in children who are developmentally delayed. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 22(3–4), 37–50.
Studies Related to Clinical Methods or Models
Beetz, A., Winkler, N., Julius, H., Uvnäs-Moberg, K., & Kotrschal, K. (2015). A Comparison of equine-assisted intervention and conventional play-based early intervention for mother–child dyads with insecure attachment. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, 8(1), 17–39.
Bachi, K. (2013). Application of attachment theory to equine-facilitated psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 43(3), 187–196.
Baker, S. (2015). Emerging practice areas: Occupational therapy and hippotherapy. Connections, 12(5), 14–15.
Bates, A. (2002). Of patients & horses. Equine-facilitated psychotherapy. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 40(5), 16–9.
Brandt, C. (2013). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy as a complementary treatment intervention. Practitioner Scholar: Journal of Counseling & Professional Psychology, 2(1), 23–42.
Cameron, J., & Robey, P.A. (2013). The horse power of choice theory. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy, 32(1), 87–99.
Carlsson, C., Ranta, D. N., & Traeen, B. (2014). Equine assisted social work as a mean for authentic relations between clients and staff. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 2(1), 19–38.
Ford, C. (2013). Dancing with horses: Combining dance/movement therapy and equine facilitated psychotherapy. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 35(2), 93–117.
Johansen, S. G., Arfwedson Wang, C. E., Binder, P.-E., & Malt, U. F. (2014). Equine-facilitated body and emotion-oriented psychotherapy designed for adolescents and adults not responding to mainstream treatment: A structured program. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 24(4), 323–335.
Kakacek, S.L, & Ottens, A. (2008). An arena for success: Exploring equine-assisted psychotherapy. Michigan Journal of Counseling: Research, Theory, and Practice, 35(1), 14–23.
Karol, J., & Tac, N. (2007). Applying a traditional individual psychotherapy model to equine-facilitated psychotherapy (EFP): Theory and method. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12(1), 77–90.
Kirby, M. (2010). Gestalt equine psychotherapy. Gestalt Journal of Australia and New Zealand, 6(2), 60–68.
Klontz, B. T., Bivens, A., Leinart, D., & Klontz, B. T. (2007). The effectiveness of equine-assisted experiential therapy: Results of an open clinical trial. Society & Animals, 15, 257–267.
Lac, V. (2014). Horsing around: Gestalt equine psychotherapy as humanistic play therapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1–16.
Latella, D; Langford, S. (2008). Hippotherapy: An effective approach to occupational therapy intervention. Occupational Therapy Practice, 13(2), 16–20.
Macauley, B. L., & Gutierrez, K. M. (2004). The effectiveness of hippotherapy for children with language-learning disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 25(4), 205–217.
Mann, D. (2001). Equine-assisted family therapy: A horse-sense perspective. AAMFT Family Therapy News, 32(2), 22–23.
Notgrass, C. G., & Pettinelli, J. D. (2015). Equine assisted psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association’s model overview of equine-based modalities. Journal of Experiential Education, 38(2), 162–174.
Roberts, F., Bradberry, J., & Williams, C. (2004). Equine-facilitated psychotherapy benefits students and children. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18(1), 32–35.
Rothe, E., Vega, B., Torres, R., Soler, S., & Pazos, R. (2005). From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5(2), 373–383.
Siporin, S. (2012). Talking horses: Equine psychotherapy and intersubjectivity. Psychodynamic Practice, 18(4), 457–464.
Swindell, M. (2010). Equine therapy and social work: A winning combination. Social Work, 1–4.
Tyler, J. L. (2008). Equine psychotherapy. Women & Therapy, 15(3–4), 139–146.
Vidrine, M., Owen-Smith, P., & Faulkner, P. (2002). Equine-facilitated group psychotherapy: Applications for therapeutic vaulting. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 23(6), 587–603.
Practice Patterns & Perspectives
All, A.C., Loving, G.L., Crane, L.L. (1999). Animals, horseback riding, and the implications for rehabilitation therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation, 49–57.
Berg, E. L., & Causey, A. (2014). The life-changing power of the horse: Equine-assisted activities and therapies in the U.S. Animal Frontiers, 4, 72–75.
Cerquozzi, C., Cerquozzi, E., Darragh, A. Miller-Kuhaneck, H. (2007). An exploratory survey of occupational therapists’ role in hippotherapy. American Occupational Therapy Association’s Developmental Disabilities Special Interest Section Quarterly, 30(3), 1–4.
Cook, R. (2011). Human incidents and injury within the hippotherapy milieu: Four years of safety study data of risk, risk management, and occurrences definition of hippotherapy. Scientific and Educational Journal of Therapeutic Riding, 57–66.
Debuse, D., Chandler, C., & Gibb, C. (2005). An exploration of German and British physiotherapists’ views on the effects of hippotherapy and their measurement. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 21(4), 219–242.
DePauw, K. P. (1986). Horseback riding for individuals with disabilities: Programs, philosophy, and research. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 3(3), 217–226.
Favali, V., Milton, M. (2010). Disabled horse-rider’s experience of horse-riding: A phenomenological analysis of the benefits of contact with animals. Existential Analysis, 21(2), 251–262.
Granados, A. C., & Agís, I. F. (2011). Why children with special needs feel better with hippotherapy sessions: a conceptual review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(3), 191–197.
Johns, L., Bobat, S., & Holder, J. (2016). Therapist experiences of equine-assisted psychotherapy in South Africa: A qualitative study. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 26(2), 199–203.
Kendall, E., Maujean, A., Pepping, C. A., & Wright, J. J. (2014). Hypotheses about the psychological benefits of horses. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 10(2), 81–87.
Masini, A. (2010). Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 48(10), 30–34.
Matamonasa-Bennett, A. (2015). Putting the horse before Descartes: Native American paradigms and ethics in equine-assisted therapies. Business & Professional Ethics Journal, 34(1), 23–43.
Meregillano, G. (2004). Hippotherapy. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 15(4), 843-854.
Pham, C., & Bitonte, R. (2016). Hippotherapy: Remuneration issues impair the offering of this therapeutic strategy at Southern California rehabilitation centers. NeuroRehabilitation, 38(4), 411–417.
Pluta, M. (2011). Parental perceptions of the effect of child participation in hippotherapy programme on overall improvement of child mental and physical wellbeing. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin, XXIX(4), 74–84.
Ratliffe, K.T., Sanekane, C. (2009). Equine-assisted therapies: Complementary medicine or not? Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 13(2), 33–43.
Valle, L. M. O., Nishimori, A. Y., & Neme, K. (2014). Speech therapy in hippotherapy. Atualizacao Cientifica Em Fonoaudiologia E Educacao, 16(2), 511–523.
Wingate, L. (1982). Feasibility of horseback riding as a therapeutic and integrative program for handicapped children. Physical Therapy, 62(2), 184–6.
Young, R. L. (2005). Therapeutic components and the link to occupational therapy. International Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation, 12(2), 78–82.
Research Related to Non-Clinical Populations
Davis, D.L., Maurstad, A., & Dean, S. (2015). “My horse is my therapist: The medicalization of pleasure among women equestrians.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 29(3): 298-315.
Gehrke, E.K. (2009). Developing coherent leadership in partnership with horses- A new approach to leadership training. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 2(1), 222–233.
Gehrke, E.K., Baldwin, A., & Schiltz, P.M. (2011). Heart rate variability in horses engaged in equine-assisted activities. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 31(2), 78–84.
Kelly, S. (2013). Horses for courses: Exploring the limits of leadership development through equine-assisted learning. Journal of Management Education, 38(2), 216–233.
Hauge, H., Kvalem, I.L., Berget, B., Enders-Slegers, M.-J., & Braastad, B.O. (2014). Equine-assisted activities and the impact on perceived social support, self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents – an intervention study. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(1), 1–21.
Hauge, H., Kvalem, I., Pedersen, I., & Braastad, B. (2013). Equine-assisted activities for adolescents: Ethogram-based behavioral analysis of persistence during horse-related tasks and communication patterns with the horse. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 1, 57–81.
Hauge, H., Kvalem, I.L., Enders-Slegers, M-J., Berget, B., & Braastad, B.O. (2015). Persistence during tasks with horses in relation to social support, general self-efficacy and self-esteem in adolescents. Anthrozoos, 28(2), 333–347.
Meola, C.C. (2016). Addressing the needs of the Millennial workforce through equine assisted learning. Journal of Management Development, 35(3), 294–303.
Nicodemus, M. (2011). Student confidence levels in horsemanship skills associated with a university equine assisted therapy course. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.
Pendry, P., Carr, A.M., Smith, A.N., & Roeter, S.M. (2014). Improving adolescent social competence and behavior: A randomized trial of an 11-week equine facilitated learning prevention program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 35, 281–293.
Pendry, P., & Roeter, S. (2013). Experimental trial demonstrates positive effects of equine facilitated learning on child social competence. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 1(1), 1–19.
Pendry, P., Smith, A.N., & Roeter, S.M. (2014). Randomized trial examines effects of equine facilitated learning on adolescents’ basal cortisol levels. Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 2(1), 80–95.
Perrotta, F. (2012). Equestrian rehabilitation. “The benefits of approach with the horse in schools and in therapeutic.” Sport Science, 5(1), 15–20.
Walsh, K.M., & Blakeney, B.A. (2013). Nurse presence enhanced through Equus. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 31(2), 121–128.
Research Related to the Movement of the Horse
Flores, F.M., Dagnese, F., Mota, C.B., & Copetti, F. (2015). Parameters of the center of pressure displacement on the saddle during hippotherapy on different surfaces. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 19(3), 211–217.
Garner, B. A., & Rigby, B.R. (2015). Human pelvis motions when walking and when riding a therapeutic horse. Human Movement Science, 39, 121–137.
Goldmann, T., & Vilimek, M. (2012). Kinematics of human spine during hippotherapy. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 15(1), 203–5.
Janura, M., Peham, C., Dvorakova, T., & Elfmark, M. (2009). An assessment of the pressure distribution exerted by a rider on the back of a horse during hippotherapy. Human Movement Science, 28(3), 387–393.
Janura, M., Svoboda, Z., Dvorakova, T., Cabell, L., Elfmark, M., & Janurova, E. (2012). The variability of a horse’s movement at walk in hippotherapy. Kinesiology, 44(2), 148–154.
Janura, M., Svoboda, Z., Cabell, L., Dvořáková, T., & Jelen, K. (2015). Effect of repeated therapeutic horse riding sessions on the trunk movement of the rider. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 36(5), 481–489.
Park, J.H., Shurtleff, T., Engsberg, J., Rafferty, S., You, J.Y., You, I.Y., & You, S.H. (2014). Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, 24(6), 2603–2610.
Uchiyama, H., Ohtani, N., & Ohta, M. (2011). Three-dimensional analysis of horse and human gaits in therapeutic riding. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 135(4), 271–276.
Articles Related to Horse Selection and Use for Equine-Assisted Therapy
Anderson, M.K., Friend, T.H., Evans, J.W., & Bushong, D.M. (1999). Behavioral assessment of horses in therapeutic riding programs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 63, 11–24.
Ciesla, A. (2007). The Characteristic of horses used in Hippotherapy in selected horse therapy centres in Poland. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnica, 6(1), 3–14.
de Oliveira, K., Soutello, R.V G., da Fonseca, R., Costa, C., Paulo, P. R., Fachiolli, D. F., & Clayton, H. M. (2015). Gymnastic training and dynamic mobilization exercises improve stride quality and increase epaxial muscle size in therapy horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35(11–12), 888–893.
DeBose, K. G. (2015). Therapy horses: An overview of utilizing equines in therapeutic programs. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 16(4), 353–363.
Łojek, J., Pluta, M., Cie, A., Domachowska, A., Przybyłowicz, N., & Łojek, A. (2015). Conformation analysis of horses used in equine-assisted activities at Polish Hippotherapeutic Centers. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnica, 14(2), 121–134.
Matsuura, A., Ohta, E., Ueda, K., Nakatsuji, H., & Kondo, S. (2008). Influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and evaluation of horses for therapeutic riding. Journal of Equine Science, 19(1), 9–18.
Minero, M., Zucca, D., & Canali, E. (2006). A note on reaction to novel stimulus and restraint by therapeutic riding horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 97(2–4), 335–342.
Moisa, C.M., Barabasi, J., & Papuc, I. (2012). Selection methods for horses used in hippotherapy. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Veterinary Medicine, 69(1/2), 156–163.
Nicosia, D.M.S., & Bacci, M.L. (2009). Study of therapeutic riding horses: a review. Ippologia, 20(1), 9–14.
Ojek, J., Ojek, A., & Soborska, J. (2013). Effect of classic massage therapy on the heart rate of horses working in hippotherapy. Case study. Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 52, 105–111.
Pawelec, A., Kubinska, M., Jastrzebska, E., Wejer, J. (2014). Characteristics of hippotherapeutic horses in Poland. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin – Polonia, XXXII(3), 9–19.
Pluta, M. (2009). Characteristics of the trunks of horses used for classic hippotherapy. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin – Polonia, XXVII(3), 1–16.
Svoboda, Z., Dvořáková, T., & Janura, M. (2011). Does the rider influence the horse’s movement in hippotherapy? Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis, Gymnica, 41(4), 37–42.
Articles Related to Effects of Equine-Assisted Therapy on Horses
Fazio, E., Medica, P., Cravana, C., & Ferlazzo, A. (2013). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses of horses to therapeutic riding program: Effects of different riders. Physiology and Behavior, 118, 138–143.
Kaiser, L., Heleski, C.R., Siegford, J., & Smith, K.A. (2006). Stress-related behaviors among horses used in a therapeutic riding program. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 228(1), 39–45.
McKinney, C., Mueller, M. K., & Frank, N. (2015). Effects of therapeutic riding on measures of stress in horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35(11–12), 922–928.
O’Rourke, K. (2004). Horse-assisted therapy: Good for humans, but how about horses? Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225(6), 817–817.
Other Articles Related to Ethics of Appropriating Horses for Human Use
Fureix, C., Beaulieu, C., Argaud, S., Rochais, C., Quinton, M., Henry, S., Hausberger, M., & Mason. G. (2015). Investigating anhedonia in a non-conventional species: Do some riding horses Equus caballus display symptoms of depression? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 162, 26–36.
Hausberger, M., Gautier, E., Biquand, V., Lunel, C., & Jégo, P. (2009). Could work be a source of behavioural disorders? A study in horses. PLoS ONE, 4(10), 2–9.
Lesimple, C., Fureix, C., Menguy, H., & Hausberger, M. (2010). Human direct actions may alter animal welfare, a study on horses (Equus caballus). PloS One, 5(4), 1–8.
Lesimple, C., Hausberger, M., Hommel, B., & Staios, M. (2014). How accurate are we at assessing others’ well-being? The example of welfare assessment in horses. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(21), 1–6.
Popescu, S., Diugan, E. a., & Spinu, M. (2014). The interrelations of good welfare indicators assessed in working horses and their relationships with the type of work. Research in Veterinary Science, 96, 406–414.
Articles Related to Horse-Human Relationship
Birke, L., & Brandt, K. (2009). Mutual corporeality: Gender and human/horse relationships. Women’s Studies International Forum, 32(3), 189–197.
Game, a. (2001). Riding: Embodying the centaur. Body & Society, 7(4), 1–12.
Garcia, D. M. (2010). Of equine and humans: Toward a new ecology. Ecopsychology, 2(2), 85–89.
Hausberger, M., Roche, H., Henry, S., & Visser, K.E. (2008). A review of the human-horse relationship. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 109(1), 1–24.
Keaveney, S.M. (2008). Equines and their human companions. Journal of Business Research, 61(5), 444–454.
Keeling, L. J., Jonare, L., & Lanneborn, L. (2009). Investigating horse-human interactions: The effect of a nervous human. Veterinary Journal, 181, 70–71.
Maurstad, A., Davis, D., & Cowles, S. (2013). Co-being and intra-action in horse-human relationships: A multi-species ethnography of be(com)ing human and be(com)ing horse. Social Anthropology, 21(3), 322–335.
Robinson, I.H., Centre, W., & Lane, F. (1999). The human-horse relationship: how much do we know? Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement, 28, 42–45.
Articles Related to Equine Ethology, Equine Behavior, Communication
Brandt, K. (2004). A language of their own: An interactionalist approach to horse-human communication. Society & Animals, 12(4), 299–316.
Briefer, E.F., Maigrot, A.-L., Mandel, R., Freymond, S. B., Bachmann, I., & Hillmann, E. (2015). Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies. Scientific Reports, 4, 1-11.
Christensen, J.W., Keeling, L.J., & Nielsen, B.L. (2005). Responses of horses to novel visual, olfactory and auditory stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 93, 53–65.
Cozzi, A., Sighieri, C., Gazzano, A., Nicol, C. J., & Baragli, P. (2010). Post-conflict friendly reunion in a permanent group of horses (Equus caballus). Behavioural Processes, 85, 185–190.
Dalla Costa, E., Minero, M., Lebelt, D., Stucke, D., Canali, E., & Leach, M. C. (2014). Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration. PLoS ONE, 9(3), 1–10.
de Grauw, J. C., & van Loon, J. P. A. M. (2016). Systematic pain assessment in horses. Veterinary Journal, 209, 14–22.
Dorey, N.R., Conover, A.M., & Udell, M.A.R. (2014). Interspecific communication from people to horses (Equus ferus caballus) is influenced by different horsemanship training styles. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128(4), 337–342.
Fureix, C., Pages, M, Bon, R, Lassalle, J.-M., Kuntz, P, & Gonzalez, G. (2009). Horse training and reactivity. Behavioural Processes, 82, 202–210.
Goodwin, D. (1999). The importance of ethology in understanding the behaviour of the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement, 28(28), 15–19.
Goodwin, D., McGreevy, P., Waran, N., & McLean, A. (2009). How equitation science can elucidate and refine horsemanship techniques. Veterinary Journal, 181(1), 5–11.
Hampson, B. A., De laat, M. A., Mills, P. C., & Pollitt, C. C. (2010). Distances travelled by feral horses in “outback” Australia. Equine Veterinary Journal, 42(38), 582–586.
Henshall, C., & McGreevy, P. D. (2014). The role of ethology in round pen horse training-A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 155, 1–11.
Keeling, L. J., Jonare, L., & Lanneborn, L. (2009). Investigating horse-human interactions: The effect of a nervous human. Veterinary Journal, 181, 70–71
Krueger, K. (2007). Behaviour of horses in the “round pen technique.” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104(1–2), 162–170.
Lovrovich, P., Sighieri, C., & Baragli, P. (2015). Following human-given cues or not? Horses (Equus caballus) get smarter and change strategy in a delayed three choice task. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 166, 80–88.
McBride, S. D., & Mills, D. (2012). Psychological factors affecting equine performance. BMC Veterinary Research, 8(1), 1.
McGreevy, P.D., Oddie, C., Burton, F.L., & McLean, A.N. (2009). The horse–human dyad: Can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram? The Veterinary Journal, 181(1), 12–18.
Merkies, K., Sievers, A., Zakrajsek, E., Macgregor, H., Bergeron, R., & König Von Borstel, U. (2014). Preliminary results suggest an influence of psychological and physiological stress in humans on horse heart rate and behavior. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9, 242–247.
Proops, L., & McComb, K. (2010). Attributing attention: the use of human-given cues by domestic horses (Equus caballus). Animal Cognition, 13(2), 197–205.
Rochais, C., Henry, S., Sankey, C., Nassur, F., Góracka-Bruzda, A., & Hausberger, M. (2014). Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus). Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–10.
Rose-Meierh, S., Ofer, €, Klaer, S., Ammon, C., Brunsch, R., & Hoffmann, G. (2010). Activity behavior of horses housed in different open barn systems. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 30(11), 624–634.
Sankey, C., Richard-Yris, M.-A. A., Leroy, H., Henry, S. V., & Hausberger, M. (2010). Positive interactions lead to lasting positive memories in horses, Equus caballus. Animal Behaviour, 79, 869–875.
Warren-Smith, A. K., & McGreevy, P. D. (2008). Preliminary investigations into the ethological relevance of round-pen (round-yard) training of horses. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 11, 285–298.
Wathan, J., & McComb, K. (2014). The eyes and ears are visual indicators of attention in domestic horses. Current Biology, 24(15), R677-9.
Yarnell, K., Hall, C., Royle, C., & Walker, S. L. (2015). Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing. Physiology & Behavior, 143, 51–57.
Articles Related to Equine Accidents
Abu-Zidan, F.M., & Rao, S. (2003). Factors affecting the severity of horse-related injuries. Injury: International Journal of the Care of the Injured, 34(12), 897–900.
Ball, C.G., Ball, J.E., Kirkpatrick, A.W., & Mulloy, R.H. (2007). Equestrian injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years of major traumatic injuries. American Journal of Surgery, 193(5), 636–640.
Carmichael, S.P., Davenport, D.L., Kearney, P.A., & Bernard, A.C. (2014). On and off the horse: Mechanisms and patterns of injury in mounted and unmounted equestrians. Injury: International Journal of the Care of the Injured, 45(9), 1479–1483.
Cook, R. (2011). Human incidents and injury within the hippotherapy milieu: Four years of safety study data of risk, risk management , and occurrences definition of hippotherapy. Scientific and Educational Journal of Therapeutic Riding, 57–66.
Cuenca, A.G., Wiggins, A., Chen, M.K., Kays, D.W., Islam, S., & Beierle, E.A. (2009). Equestrian injuries in children. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 44(1), 148–150.
Hawson, L.A., McLean, A.N., & McGreevy, P.D. (2010). The roles of equine ethology and applied learning theory in horse-related human injuries. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 5(6), 324–338.
Lin, C.Y., Wright, J., Bushnik, T., & Shem, K. (2011). Traumatic spinal cord injuries in horseback riding. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(11), 2441–2446.
Papachristos, A., Edwards, E., Dowrick, A., & Gosling, C. (2014). A description of the severity of equestrian-related injuries (ERIs) using clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes. Injury: International Journal of the Care of the Injured, 45(9), 1484–1487.
Silver, J. (2002). Spinal injuries resulting from horse riding accidents. Spinal Cord: The Official Journal of the International Medical Society of Paraplegia, 40, 264–271.
Smartt, P., & Chalmers, D. (2009). A new look at horse-related sport and recreational injury in New Zealand. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(3), 376–382.
Starling, M., McLean, A., & McGreevy, P. (2016). The contribution of equitation science to minimising horse-related risks to humans. Animals, 6(3), 1–13.